Suppliers and Species of Walnut nuts
Walnuts are the nuts of any tree belonging to the genus Juglans. Walnut trees are native to the temperate and sub tropical forests of Europe, Asia, North America, Central and South America. Botanically speaking Walnut nuts are seeds and not nuts. Walnuts have dense amounts of protein and essential fatty acids. Walnuts are most commonly used for their nutmeat, which is cultivated at full ripening. The antioxidants of the seed coat protect the oil rich seed. The walnut trees secrete chemicals in the soil to prevent nearby vegetation from growing.
There are around 20 well known tree species which belong to the Juglans or the Walnut genus. The Juglans regia species of walnut trees are cultivated for their sweet walnuts. These sweet walnut nuts are also known as the English Walnuts, Persian Walnuts and the royal nut of Jupiter. The main differentiating factor of Juglans regia walnuts is that the hull of these walnut nuts can be easily separated without much effort. The Juglans regia walnut species originated in Iran near the Caspian Sea. They are native to the areas extending in the east from Turkey and Iran to the valleys in western China and Eastern Himalayas.
Top walnut nut suppliers in the world are China, Iran, United States, Turkey and Mexico. In year 2012, China was the top walnut nut supplier with an annual production of 1,700,000 tons of walnuts. Iran and United States were next quantity walnut nut suppliers with an annual production of 450,000 and 425,820 tons respectively. Turkey and Mexico ranked fourth and fifth respectively in walnut production with an annual production of 194,298 and 110,605 tons of walnuts. The total walnut nut supply for the year 2010 was 2.55 million metric tons. France and Romania were ninth and tenth walnut nut suppliers in the year 2012.
Specific requirements for Walnut nut cultivation
Walnuts require deeper organic rich and well drained sandy loams. They do not tolerate salinity and require a soil of neutral pH value in between 5.5 and 7.5. Walnut nut trees are badly affected by temperature extremities. Frosts in spring and high summer temperatures can both wipe out the nut production. Walnut Nut supply quality is also reduced due to high temperatures at harvest.
Black Walnut species
Black Walnut nuts have a small kernel which is tightly fitted inside the walnut shell. The husk is firmly attached to this deeply furrowed shell. Black Walnuts are part of genus Juglans and there are about 16 species which fall under the category of Black Walnut nuts. Black Walnut nuts are primarily grown for
- Timber production, and
- As a rootstock for grafting.
Eastern Black Walnut: This species of Walnut is also known as Juglans nigra. They are native to eastern United States and Canada. Eastern Black Walnuts are primarily used for rootstock breeding because for their special resistance to root diseases. The green fruits are valued for medicinal purposes and the timber is valued for furniture and gunstocks.
Northern California Black Walnut: This species of Walnut is also known as Juglans hindsii. They are primarily used as a rootstock and a rootstock parent due to its high vigour.
Southern California Black Walnut: This species of Walnut is also known as Juglans californica and grows as a shrubby tree. They are native to coastal southern California.
Arizona Black Walnuts: Arizona Black Walnuts are also known as Juglans major. They are native to Arizona. They are used as rootstock for arid and salty soils.
Texas Black Walnuts: Texas Black Walnuts are also known as Juglans microcarpa. They are native to Texas. They are also used as rootstock for arid and salty soils.
Japanese Walnuts: Japanese Walnuts are also known as Juglans ailanthifolia. They are native to Japan. They are used as a rootstock in propagation.
Andean Walnuts: Andean Walnuts are also known as Juglans neotropica. They belong to the species of evergreen walnut trees and are native to tropical regions.